EICTP Expert Paper: Ülkü Ocakları. Turkish-Islamist Far-Right Extremism.
Known in Turkish as the Ülkü Ocakları (also called Grey Wolves), the group is a far-right extremist organization characterized by their Turkish-Islamist beliefs. It is active in Germany and Austria in different Turkish and Turkish-Islamist organizations. This analysis aims at offering a comprehensive overview of the historic positioning and the interplay of Islam and Turkish nationalism throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Furthermore, pupular symbols of the Ülkü Ocakları are presented in greater detail and explained according to their respective meanings. Finally, this paper concludes with some recommendations how to deal with this Turkish-Islamist, far-right group within the framework of democratic and education-policy oriented initiatives. This means that this contribution intends to serve as a first step to establish further critical studies on the heterogeneous, Turkish immigrant society.